Study shows some aquatic plants depend on the landscape for photosynthesis

ASU researchers found that not only are freshwater aquatic plants affected by climate, they are also shaped by the surrounding landscape. When in an environment where CO2 is limited, aquatic plants use strategies to extract carbon from bicarbonate. Scientists identified patterns across ecoregions around the globe and discovered a direct link between the availability of catchment bicarbonate and the ability of aquatic plants to extract carbon from that bicarbonate.

Family Justice and Safety Program Grants

OUR GRANT OPPORTUNITIES: Youth Today’s grant listings are carefully curated for our subscribers working in youth-related industries. Subscribers will find local, regional, state and national grant opportunities.

THIS GRANT’S FOCUS: Child/Youth Welfare, Safety, Family/Domestic Violence, Justice
Deadline:
Jan. 8, 2020

“The Grants to Support Families in the Justice System program was authorized in the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act (VAWA) of 2013 to improve the response of the civil and criminal justice system to families with a history of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, or in cases involving allegations of child sexual abuse.

The program supports the following activities for improving the capacity of courts and communities to respond to families affected by the targeted crimes: court-based and court-related programs; supervised visitation and safe exchange by and between parents; training for people who work with families in the court system; civil legal services; and the provision of resources in juvenile court matters.”

Funder: Office on Violence Against Women
Eligibility:
Nonprofit organizations, states, units of local government, courts (including juvenile courts), Indian tribal governments, legal services providers, and victim service providers.
Amount:
$550,000 – $650,000
Contact:
Link.


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How One OST Organization Recruits, Retains Staff

after-school: 2 smiling women look at book outdoors

Fresh Air Fund

The Fresh Air Fund intentionally creates a pathway for young people to develop skills that potentially can lead to a future job with the organization. Carla Brown (right), shown here with a camper, was a camper herself for the first time in summer 2009. She took part in the organization’s leadership training and counselor-in-training programs before becoming a counselor and is now a member of the Camp Anita Bliss Coler leadership team.

How can after-school and summer programs recruit and retain staff more easily?

The Fresh Air Fund has a few answers.

The 142-year-old organization runs six summer camps and some year-round activities for kids living in under-resourced areas of New York City. About 3,000 kids attend camp.

Each summer, the Fresh Air Fund hires more than 500 people to staff its camps. Fully 17% are recruited from within — they came up through the program. The trick is creating a pathway for youth in the program from the middle school years onward.

It’s a strategy that other youth-serving organizations — not only summer camps — can adopt, said Fatima Shama, executive director of the Fresh Air Fund.

“It will likely look different for a lot of places,” Shama said. But it’s about investing in the young people you serve, she said.

Many after-school programs have a summer component. They could consider developing some of their young people to work in the summer program, for example, she said.

“We have a very intentional ladder [at the Fresh Air Fund],” Shama said.

First of all, the organization focuses on keeping kids coming back to camp year after year. About 60% attend more than one summer, Shama said.

Kids are kept engaged throughout the school year in programs that begin to develop their leadership skills. Sixth graders can apply to take part in a three-year career awareness program. 

A leadership program for girls ages 13-17, held in the summer at Camp Anita Bliss Coler, meets weekly during the school year.

For teen boys, a monthly drop-in program builds a sense of community, Shama said. They might watch a movie or have conversations about what it means to be a young man of color in New York City, she said.

High school students are also supported in preparing for and enrolling in college through the College Connections programs. Many are the first in their families to go to college.

Eight-week counselor-in-training programs at the summer camps are the first step for young people to learn about working with younger kids.

“We help the CITs understand what it’s like to be a counselor,” Shama said.

In addition, a pilot program begun last year invites selected young adults to take part in leadership development. Among other things, they explore what it means to create a community and culture in the organization, Shama said. 

Recruiting from within helps the Fresh Air Fund hire staff who represent the diversity of the campers.

“There’s something powerful [for campers] in seeing someone who looks like them in this adult role,” Shama said.

It’s also a continued investment in youth. The training that young professionals get are those 21st century skills that they will need in their careers, she said, including time management, public speaking and community-building skills.

It’s important for the organization to keep in touch with young adults as they continue through college, said Roberto Gil Jr., deputy director of camping and year-round programs. 

“Retention is so much about relationship-building,” he said at the National Summer Learning Association conference in Atlanta in October. It’s also about good training.

“Professional development is really key to having staff stay around,” he said. Training staff about youth development should be interactive and team-building, he said. It’s a chance to create that culture in your organization, he said.

The post How One OST Organization Recruits, Retains Staff appeared first on Youth Today.


How multiple factors of climate change affect soil

A team of ecologists at Freie Universität Berlin studied soil and how it was affected by multiple factors of climate change. The team, led by Prof. Dr. Matthias Rillig, experimentally examined effects of up to 10 factors of climate change by randomly adding an increasing number of such factors. Results on soil functions and biodiversity showed consistent trends with increasing number of factors added, irrespective of what the factors were. The results give a rare glimpse into what might happen under climate change when considering a wide range of factors simultaneously: there were ecological “surprises,” and it was quite difficult to accurately predict effects when many factors were involved. The study highlights the urgent need to focus on multifactor studies and appears in the current issue of Science.

OR Environmental Education Grants

OUR GRANT OPPORTUNITIES: Youth Today’s grant listings are carefully curated for our subscribers working in youth-related industries. Subscribers will find local, regional, state and national grant opportunities.

THIS GRANT’S FOCUS: Environmental Education, K-12, Civic Engagement, Community
Deadline:
Dec. 2, 2019

“The Gray Family Foundation’s Environmental Education program seeks to support programs that stimulate or promote the teaching of environmental education in K-12 environments and increases outdoor experiences for youth.

Through our investments in environmental education in Oregon, Gray FF seeks to support:

  • Active youth stewardship of our natural and built environments;
  • Systematic integration of environmental education in formal and informal K-12 education systems;
  • High quality environmental education programming by schools, districts, and non-profits with and for their communities;
  • Environmental education opportunities that include and reflect the experiences, perspectives, and knowledge of diverse populations across Oregon.

In 2020, we are offering three options through our Environmental Education grant program.

  1. Capacity Building – We will consider capacity-building grant requests from $5,000-$20,000 focused on advancing equity in environmental education. This includes capacity-building support for culturally-specific organizations seeking to integrate best practices in environmental education into their youth programming AND/OR organizations seeking to build their capacity to effectively engage with and support communities where they are implementing programming. Eligible organizations should have or be planning for programming that engages 3rd-8th grade youth. Planning grants are one-year grants with the opportunity to apply for programmatic grants in future years.
  2. Youth Field Experiences – We will consider programmatic grant requests from $5,000-$25,000 per year to support field experiences for 3rd through 8th grade youth. Program applicants may request multi-year funding (up to three years) pending annual grant renewals through the 2022-2023 school year.
  3. Educator Training and Professional Development – We will consider programmatic grant requests from $5,000-$25,000 per year to support educator professional development. Program applicants may request multi-year funding (up to three years) pending annual grant renewals through the 2022-2023 school year.”

Funder: The Gray Family Foundation
Eligibility:
“We will consider proposals submitted by schools, districts, colleges, tribal entities, government agencies or 501(c)3 non-profit organizations serving Oregon.”
Amount:
$5,000 – $25,000
Contact:
Link.


>>> CLICK HERE to see all of Youth Today’s GRANT LISTINGS

The post OR Environmental Education Grants appeared first on Youth Today.


OR Environmental Education Grants

OUR GRANT OPPORTUNITIES: Youth Today’s grant listings are carefully curated for our subscribers working in youth-related industries. Subscribers will find local, regional, state and national grant opportunities.

THIS GRANT’S FOCUS: Environmental Education, K-12, Civic Engagement, Community
Deadline:
Dec. 2, 2019

“The Gray Family Foundation’s Environmental Education program seeks to support programs that stimulate or promote the teaching of environmental education in K-12 environments and increases outdoor experiences for youth.

Through our investments in environmental education in Oregon, Gray FF seeks to support:

  • Active youth stewardship of our natural and built environments;
  • Systematic integration of environmental education in formal and informal K-12 education systems;
  • High quality environmental education programming by schools, districts, and non-profits with and for their communities;
  • Environmental education opportunities that include and reflect the experiences, perspectives, and knowledge of diverse populations across Oregon.

In 2020, we are offering three options through our Environmental Education grant program.

  1. Capacity Building – We will consider capacity-building grant requests from $5,000-$20,000 focused on advancing equity in environmental education. This includes capacity-building support for culturally-specific organizations seeking to integrate best practices in environmental education into their youth programming AND/OR organizations seeking to build their capacity to effectively engage with and support communities where they are implementing programming. Eligible organizations should have or be planning for programming that engages 3rd-8th grade youth. Planning grants are one-year grants with the opportunity to apply for programmatic grants in future years.
  2. Youth Field Experiences – We will consider programmatic grant requests from $5,000-$25,000 per year to support field experiences for 3rd through 8th grade youth. Program applicants may request multi-year funding (up to three years) pending annual grant renewals through the 2022-2023 school year.
  3. Educator Training and Professional Development – We will consider programmatic grant requests from $5,000-$25,000 per year to support educator professional development. Program applicants may request multi-year funding (up to three years) pending annual grant renewals through the 2022-2023 school year.”

Funder: The Gray Family Foundation
Eligibility:
“We will consider proposals submitted by schools, districts, colleges, tribal entities, government agencies or 501(c)3 non-profit organizations serving Oregon.”
Amount:
$5,000 – $25,000
Contact:
Link.


>>> CLICK HERE to see all of Youth Today’s GRANT LISTINGS

The post OR Environmental Education Grants appeared first on Youth Today.


IL Economy, Education, Engagement and Environment Grants

OUR GRANT OPPORTUNITIES: Youth Today’s grant listings are carefully curated for our subscribers working in youth-related industries. Subscribers will find local, regional, state and national grant opportunities.

THIS GRANT’S FOCUS: Education, Environment, Civic Engagement, Community, Illinois
Deadline:
Ongoing

“Grand Victoria Foundation is a private foundation whose mission is to empower communities to ensure Illinois is a great place to live and work. We envision a strong, livable, and equitable Illinois where every resident has an opportunity to thrive. Grand Victoria Foundation awards grants in five program areas:

  1. Economy – This grantmaking program will support organizations that: (1) design solutions that create sensible protections for low and middle-income families working hard to make ends meet; (2) support workers and communities who wish to pursue entrepreneurship as a means for securing their economic futures; (3) pursue partnerships that allow communities and workers to benefit from economic growth in new and existing industries; and (4) significantly improve access to creative, high-quality adult education opportunities for adults with limited literacy and numeracy skills.
  2. Education – This grantmaking program will support organizations that: (1) prioritize parent and youth power and voice in education; (2) nurture socio-emotional well-being; (3) strengthen teacher pipeline, cultivate teacher leaders and support educator-led work; (4) create high-quality school-day and out-of-school learning experiences; (5) foster early learning and K-12 community-driven strategies and partnerships that advocate for equitable systems.
  3. Elgin – (1) Mission Grants: to organizations that effectively and inclusively meet the needs and wants of the community. We give priority to organizations located in Elgin, serve Elgin residents, and deliver high-quality programs; (2) Partnership and Collaboration Grants: to organizations that partner with other local institutions to coordinate the building of high-functioning systems that bring about positive community change.
  4. Engagement – This grantmaking program will support organizations that: (1) work to improve civil discourse, civic participation, community engagement, and a stronger democracy in Illinois; (2) encourage efforts that increase residents’ agency and leadership and helps them use authority that enhances community well-being.
  5. Environment – This grantmaking program will support organizations that: (1) protect land and advance innovations to conservation practices that extend to natural, rural and urban areas; (2) focus on increasing racial and ethnic diversity of practitioners in the field; (3) test new solutions at the intersection of conservation and economy preserve and restore natural landscapes.”

Funder: Grand Victoria Foundation
Eligibility:
“To be considered for funding, an organization must be registered with the IRS as a 501(c)(3) public charity or be partnered with a fiscal sponsor or fiscal agent that meets this requirement. We support organizations in Illinois whose work is a strong fit with our program strategies. We fund organizations that demonstrate high quality and high impact; good governance and management; and fiscal health.”
Amount:
Unspecified
Contact:
Link.


>>> CLICK HERE to see all of Youth Today’s GRANT LISTINGS

The post IL Economy, Education, Engagement and Environment Grants appeared first on Youth Today.


IL Economy, Education, Engagement and Environment Grants

OUR GRANT OPPORTUNITIES: Youth Today’s grant listings are carefully curated for our subscribers working in youth-related industries. Subscribers will find local, regional, state and national grant opportunities.

THIS GRANT’S FOCUS: Education, Environment, Civic Engagement, Community, Illinois
Deadline:
Ongoing

“Grand Victoria Foundation is a private foundation whose mission is to empower communities to ensure Illinois is a great place to live and work. We envision a strong, livable, and equitable Illinois where every resident has an opportunity to thrive. Grand Victoria Foundation awards grants in five program areas:

  1. Economy – This grantmaking program will support organizations that: (1) design solutions that create sensible protections for low and middle-income families working hard to make ends meet; (2) support workers and communities who wish to pursue entrepreneurship as a means for securing their economic futures; (3) pursue partnerships that allow communities and workers to benefit from economic growth in new and existing industries; and (4) significantly improve access to creative, high-quality adult education opportunities for adults with limited literacy and numeracy skills.
  2. Education – This grantmaking program will support organizations that: (1) prioritize parent and youth power and voice in education; (2) nurture socio-emotional well-being; (3) strengthen teacher pipeline, cultivate teacher leaders and support educator-led work; (4) create high-quality school-day and out-of-school learning experiences; (5) foster early learning and K-12 community-driven strategies and partnerships that advocate for equitable systems.
  3. Elgin – (1) Mission Grants: to organizations that effectively and inclusively meet the needs and wants of the community. We give priority to organizations located in Elgin, serve Elgin residents, and deliver high-quality programs; (2) Partnership and Collaboration Grants: to organizations that partner with other local institutions to coordinate the building of high-functioning systems that bring about positive community change.
  4. Engagement – This grantmaking program will support organizations that: (1) work to improve civil discourse, civic participation, community engagement, and a stronger democracy in Illinois; (2) encourage efforts that increase residents’ agency and leadership and helps them use authority that enhances community well-being.
  5. Environment – This grantmaking program will support organizations that: (1) protect land and advance innovations to conservation practices that extend to natural, rural and urban areas; (2) focus on increasing racial and ethnic diversity of practitioners in the field; (3) test new solutions at the intersection of conservation and economy preserve and restore natural landscapes.”

Funder: Grand Victoria Foundation
Eligibility:
“To be considered for funding, an organization must be registered with the IRS as a 501(c)(3) public charity or be partnered with a fiscal sponsor or fiscal agent that meets this requirement. We support organizations in Illinois whose work is a strong fit with our program strategies. We fund organizations that demonstrate high quality and high impact; good governance and management; and fiscal health.”
Amount:
Unspecified
Contact:
Link.


>>> CLICK HERE to see all of Youth Today’s GRANT LISTINGS

The post IL Economy, Education, Engagement and Environment Grants appeared first on Youth Today.


School Shootings Focus Defies Statistics on Where Children Die From Gunfire

school shootings: A young girl cowering on the floor

Doidam 10/Shutterstock

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Shooting deaths of children is a serious problem that needs to be addressed in this country, as does the problem of such deaths for adults. Statistics show that of all the world’s children under 14 who died from gun homicide in 2016, 91% of them were Americans! That statistic alone should shock and appall us and should motivate our legislators to seek solutions to reduce this unnecessary death toll.

In the years since the school shooting in Columbine, there has been a marked increase in the number of American children killed in school shootings, and in recent years the frequency of school shootings appears to have increased. Extensive media coverage has made the American public keenly aware of the threat from school shootings and prompted changes in legislation, school policies and practices to counter the threat. 

school shootings: Andrew Goddard (headshot), legislative director of Virginia Center for Public Safety, smiling man with short light brown hair

Andrew Goddard

However, what seems to get lost in the whole debate about violence against school-age children is the fact that, on average, the annual death toll for American children either in school, on the way to or from school or at school-supported events is less than 1% of the total death toll from gun violence affecting that age group. 

The vast majority of our children who are fatally shot or wounded by gunfire are NOT in school but in homes or other places not associated with schools at the time. The level of concern for the 1% who are in school is disproportionate to their numbers, but not because that level is too high, but rather because the level of concern for the 99% of deaths and injuries that occur elsewhere is pitifully low. Many more children’s lives could be saved by measures designed to target the 99% of children victimized outside school than could be saved by even the most effective school shooting responses. 

Looking first at the responses that have been proposed and instituted around the country, the influence of the gun lobby can be seen quite clearly. Most states have chosen to take a reactive approach only, which starts with the assumption that an armed intruder will enter a school with a firearm and probably a substantial amount of ammunition, so what can be done to limit the death toll after that fact? This has led to armed uniformed police officers being stationed at schools and in some cases the arming of teachers or other school staff. 

The problem with these approaches is that there is little evidence to show that armed responders have been able to prevent or even minimize casualties in the many instances where they were present during a school shooting. Rarely has a shooting been prevented by an armed individual, though several have been prevented by the intervention of an unarmed staff member. 

We Know What Reduces Shootings

In addition to the ineffectual aspect of these reactive measures, there have been some very undesirable side effects. Increased police presence in schools has led to the criminalization of adolescent behavior that would be better dealt with by other disciplinary methods. Black and minority students have been disproportionately victimized by this and a so-called school to jail pipeline has been created. 

Also, the presence of more guns in more hands at more times during the school year has greatly increased the possibility of accidental discharges or guns falling into the hands of students when the gun carriers are negligent about the security of their weapons. Finally, the widespread use of repeated “active shooter” drills, which involve students of all ages, has created panic and severe mental trauma for a greater number of students than the number traumatized by actual school shootings. 

Another indication of the influence of the gun lobby is the widespread acceptance of the unfounded myth that all school shooters are mentally ill. This is a common diversionary tactic of the gun lobby, used to deflect attention from the more obvious fact that it is the weapons they use that cause the fatalities, not the nature of their motivation. Anger, social pressures and adolescent angst are NOT mental illnesses, yet emphasizing the need for more mental health interventions further stigmatizes the majority of people with mental illness who are no threat to others.

What is needed to reduce child deaths from gun violence is a multifaceted approach that combines preventive and reactive measures, based on actual research into the causes, contributing factors and motivations of the individuals who carry out ANY form of violence against our children. We know, for example, that domestic violence kills more American children than school shooting, yet there is very little done to minimize that threat.

It is obvious from the results of legislation enacted in many states that stronger child access prevention laws, increased background checks on gun sales and transfers, strong laws preventing unauthorized possession of firearms by individuals too young to legally buy them and limits on the sale of high-capacity magazines and military-style rifles have the potential to save many more children’s lives than could possibly be saved by arming teachers or other reactive measures alone.

It has become too common to hear parents express the fear that when their child goes off to school they may not see them alive again, yet the brutal reality is that it is much more realistic for teachers to think that when they see their students leave for home that they may not return the next day.

Andrew Goddard’s interest in mental health issues, as well as gun violence prevention, came about as a result of his son’s injuries sustained in the Virginia Tech tragedy of April 16, 2007. He is now the president of the Richmond, Va., chapter of the Million Mom March against gun violence and legislative director of the Virginia Center for Public Safety.

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Rubber in the environment: Where the tread from our tires ‘disappears’ to

The tread on the tire is worn out, new tires are needed. Everyday life for many drivers. But where do these lost centimeters of tire tread “disappear” to? As micro-rubbers, they mainly end up in soil and water and, to a small extent, in the air. And the amount of these particles in our environment is anything but small, as Empa researchers have now calculated.

Something old, something new in the ocean’s blue

Charles Darwin suspected something in the “clear blue water” of the ocean that was even smaller than the protozoa he could see under the microscope. “Today we know that every liter of ocean water is swarming with hundreds of millions of microorganisms,” explains marine researcher Rudolf Amann, Director at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen. His colleague Tobias Erb from the sister institute of terrestrial Microbiology in Marburg adds: “Although only micrometers in size, the microorganisms with their sheer number and high rate of metabolism have a strong impact on energy flow and biomass turnover in the oceans.”

Prescription Opioid Use and Misuse Among Adolescents and Young Adults in the U.S.

See Full Report

Author(s): 

  • Joel D. Hudgins – Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital | Depts. of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School
  • John J. Porter – Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital
  • Michael C. Monuteaux – Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital
  • Florence T. Bourgeois – Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital | Depts. of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School

Published: Nov. 5, 2019

Report Intro/Brief:
“Prescription opioid misuse has become a leading cause of unintentional injury and death among adolescents and young adults in the United States. However, there is limited information on how adolescents and young adults obtain prescription opioids. There are also inadequate recent data on the prevalence of additional drug abuse among those misusing prescription opioids. In this study, we evaluated past-year prevalence of prescription opioid use and misuse, sources of prescription opioids, and additional substance use among adolescents and young adults.

We included 27,857 adolescents (12–17 years of age) and 28,213 young adults (18–25 years of age) in our analyses, corresponding to 119.3 million individuals in the extrapolated national population. There were 15,143 respondents who used prescription opioids in the previous year, including 21.0% of adolescents and 32.2% of young adults. Significantly more females than males reported using any prescription opioid, and non-Hispanic whites and blacks were more likely to have had any opioid use compared to Hispanics. Opioid misuse was reported by 1,050 adolescents and 2,207 young adults.

Male respondents using opioids were more likely to have opioid misuse without use disorder compared with females, with similar prevalence by race/ethnicity. Among those misusing opioids, 55.7% obtained them from friends or relatives, 25.4% from the healthcare system, and 18.9% through other means. Obtaining opioids free from friends or relatives was the most common source for both adolescents (33.5%) and young adults (41.4%). Those with opioid misuse reported high prevalence of prior cocaine (35.5%), hallucinogen (49.4%), heroin (8.7%), and inhalant (30.4%) use. In addition, at least half had used tobacco (55.5%), alcohol (66.9%), or cannabis (49.9%) in the past month. Potential limitations of the study are that we cannot exclude selection bias in the study design or socially desirable reporting among participants, and that longitudinal data are not available for long-term follow-up of individuals.

Results from this study suggest that the prevalence of prescription opioid use among adolescents and young adults in the US is high despite known risks for future opioid and other drug use disorders. Reported prescription opioid misuse is common among adolescents and young adults and often associated with additional substance abuse, underscoring the importance of drug and alcohol screening programs in this population. Prevention and treatment efforts should take into account that greater than half of youths misusing prescription opioids obtain these medications through friends and relatives.”


>>> CLICK HERE to see all of Youth Today’s REPORT LIBRARY

The post Prescription Opioid Use and Misuse Among Adolescents and Young Adults in the U.S. appeared first on Youth Today.


Prescription Opioid Use and Misuse Among Adolescents and Young Adults in the U.S.

See Full Report

Author(s): 

  • Joel D. Hudgins – Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital | Depts. of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School
  • John J. Porter – Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital
  • Michael C. Monuteaux – Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital
  • Florence T. Bourgeois – Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital | Depts. of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School

Published: Nov. 5, 2019

Report Intro/Brief:
“Prescription opioid misuse has become a leading cause of unintentional injury and death among adolescents and young adults in the United States. However, there is limited information on how adolescents and young adults obtain prescription opioids. There are also inadequate recent data on the prevalence of additional drug abuse among those misusing prescription opioids. In this study, we evaluated past-year prevalence of prescription opioid use and misuse, sources of prescription opioids, and additional substance use among adolescents and young adults.

We included 27,857 adolescents (12–17 years of age) and 28,213 young adults (18–25 years of age) in our analyses, corresponding to 119.3 million individuals in the extrapolated national population. There were 15,143 respondents who used prescription opioids in the previous year, including 21.0% of adolescents and 32.2% of young adults. Significantly more females than males reported using any prescription opioid, and non-Hispanic whites and blacks were more likely to have had any opioid use compared to Hispanics. Opioid misuse was reported by 1,050 adolescents and 2,207 young adults.

Male respondents using opioids were more likely to have opioid misuse without use disorder compared with females, with similar prevalence by race/ethnicity. Among those misusing opioids, 55.7% obtained them from friends or relatives, 25.4% from the healthcare system, and 18.9% through other means. Obtaining opioids free from friends or relatives was the most common source for both adolescents (33.5%) and young adults (41.4%). Those with opioid misuse reported high prevalence of prior cocaine (35.5%), hallucinogen (49.4%), heroin (8.7%), and inhalant (30.4%) use. In addition, at least half had used tobacco (55.5%), alcohol (66.9%), or cannabis (49.9%) in the past month. Potential limitations of the study are that we cannot exclude selection bias in the study design or socially desirable reporting among participants, and that longitudinal data are not available for long-term follow-up of individuals.

Results from this study suggest that the prevalence of prescription opioid use among adolescents and young adults in the US is high despite known risks for future opioid and other drug use disorders. Reported prescription opioid misuse is common among adolescents and young adults and often associated with additional substance abuse, underscoring the importance of drug and alcohol screening programs in this population. Prevention and treatment efforts should take into account that greater than half of youths misusing prescription opioids obtain these medications through friends and relatives.”


>>> CLICK HERE to see all of Youth Today’s REPORT LIBRARY

The post Prescription Opioid Use and Misuse Among Adolescents and Young Adults in the U.S. appeared first on Youth Today.