The Middle East is one of the most water scarce regions in the world. Many countries in the region have exploited their available water resources and left watersheds below the sustainable level of water withdrawal. Water is extensively used in agricultural activities and the region has seen declines in precipitation over time. Adding to those constraints, the region faces issues with population growth, economic development and the effects of climate change. Collectively, these patterns indicate that many Middle Eastern countries will experience major constraints to maintaining available water resources and expanding their crop production.